日本語の秘密 18/33


日本語の秘密/ The Key to NIHON-GO

by 岸本建夫 [Kishimoto Tatsuo] 1999
OCR/Corr by most.cyak@gmail.com, Oct 2014


Section 4 Japanese is a Free-Spirited Language

→ How to Use Two Verbs in Conjunction

  In Japanese, you create a verb with a compound meaning by combining two verbs with different meanings, though with relevance and similarity. Such verbs are used frequently. Let’s look at some examples.

  1) Normal Cases

   1. Kaku Type Verbs:

  The word kakimatigau is a compound of kaku ‘write’ and matigau ‘mistake’. You take the first verb, kaku, change it into the -masu form by using the “i” column, but instead of adding masu, you add the second verb.

  Other Examples:

   2. Miru Type Verbs:

  The word miwakeru is a compound of miru ‘see’ and wakeru ‘divide’. In the same way as with the masu form the final character, or ru, of the first verb, miru, is removed, and the second verb wakeru is added in place of -masu.

  2) When Iku or Kuru is the Second Verb

   1. The term tori ni iku is a compound of the verbs toru ‘get’ and iku ‘go’. When ni comes between two verbs, the first verb, in this case toru, becomes the object of the latter, iku.

  You change the first verb to its -masu form, but instead of adding -masu, you add ni + second verb.

   2. The term hanasite iku is a compound of the verbs hanasu ‘speak’ and iku ‘go’ when te comes between two verbs. The action of the first verb is proceeding or has finished when the action of the second verb proceeds. Here, you change the dictionary form of the first verb to the past tense and then add te + second verb in place of ta.

  3) When expressing requests or favors, kureru is the second verb:

  Using the dictionary form in the past tense, replace ta with te kureru. Similar predicates, like morau, ageru, and hosii, are transformed in the same way.

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